This fact sheet provides instructions for the use of ciprofloxacin for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during an emergency involving anthrax (referred to as Emergency Use Instructions (EUI) fact sheet). Ciprofloxacin is FDA-approved for PEP of inhalation anthrax – to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also issued an order permitting the emergency dispensing of oral formulations of ciprofloxacin without a prescription during an anthrax emergency to individuals who may have been exposed to . Inhalation anthrax is the most deadly form of the disease, with a historical mortality rate of approximately 90% for untreated cases. Inhalation anthrax occurs when an individual inhales aerosolized spores. Early symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, cough or headache. Later symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion or nausea. Symptoms usually occur within 7 days of inhaling anthrax spores, but can occur as soon as 24 hours after exposure or may take up to 6 to 7 weeks to appear (animal data show symptoms can occur more than 50 days after exposure). Do not give ciprofloxacin to anyone who is allergic to a quinolone antibiotic (including ciprofloxacin) or has a history of myasthenia gravis. 1Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France2EA3964, “Emergence de la résistance bactérienne in vivo,” Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France8CNR “Résistance dans les flores commensales,” AP-HP Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France Although optimization of the fluoroquinolone dosage increases the efficacy of this class of drugs against bacterial infections, its impact on the emergence of resistance in commensal bacteria is unknown. Six different 14-day dosages of oral ciprofloxacin were randomly assigned to 48 healthy volunteers. Individual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters combining antibiotic exposure in plasma, saliva, and stool specimens and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations against viridans group streptococci in the pharyngeal flora and in the fecal flora were estimated. Their links with the emergence of resistance to nalidixic acid or ciprofloxacin in the fecal flora and to levofloxacin in the pharyngeal flora 7, 14, or 42 days after ciprofloxacin initiation were investigated. Resistance emerged in the fecal and pharyngeal flora of 25% and 33% of the subjects, respectively, mainly when local concentrations of ciprofloxacin were less than the MIC. No variable that integrated pharmacokinetic data and pharmacodynamic parameters was found to differ significantly between the subjects in whom resistance emerged and those in whom it did not. Probabilities of the emergence of resistance were not significantly different across the different antibiotic dosages.
Similar to Clavamox for dogs, ciprofloxacin is effective in the treatment of both gram-positive and gram-negative strains bacteria. This drug requires a prescription before use, which means a veterinary visit is required. You should follow the precise dosing instructions of your vet. Ciprofloxacin may be sold as either 250 or 500 mg tablets, and is most commonly given to dogs at dosages of 2.27 – 6.8 mg/lb body weight to be given twice a day (12 hour intervals). Ciprofloxacin is safe when used responsibly with veterinary guidance and approval. As an antibiotic it may cause allergic reactions in some pets, especially those with a known sensitivity to medication of this type. You should watch your pet closely after administering this drug to ensure there are no adverse side effects. Ciprofloxacin, also known by the brand name Cipro, is an antibiotic that can be used for dogs who suffer from urinary tract infections, skin infections, respiratory infections, and other bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic, meaning it can attack multiple types of bacteria. Because of this, it is usually only prescribed if other specific antibiotics for dogs fail, as long-term exposure to ciprofloxacin can result in bacteria adapting and becoming more resilient. The drug is not FDA approved for use in animals, but it can be safely prescribed by a veterinarian. Follow all of your vet’s instructions carefully if they prescribe ciprofloxacin to treat your dog. Here is what you should know about the uses, dosage, and side effects of ciprofloxacin for dogs. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections in dogs.
Methods. Six different dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for 14 days were randomly assigned to 48 healthy volunteers. Individual. Ciprofloxacin for infection is given to treat a bacterial infection. It is useful for treating infections such as chest infections and urine infections.