In New Zealand, fluconazole is available as 50 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg capsules on prescription (Diflucan®). There is also a 2 mg/ml injection for intravenous use. In New Zealand, Pharmaceutical Schedule subsidy of the capsules requires Specialist recommendation. Fluconazole binds to the fungal p450 enzymes and stops the cells making ergosterol, the main component of the cell wall. Fluconazole is well absorbed orally with or without food. It takes 22 to 30 hours for half of the medication to be cleared from the blood stream and may take several days of continuous treatment to reach a steady concentration. The drug is eliminated unchanged in the urine so doses should be reduced if there is kidney disease. For versicolor, either 50 mg daily or 150 mg once weekly is taken for two to six weeks. Individuals at risk for invasive candidiasis include low birth weight babies, people recovering from surgery, people admitted to an intensive care units, and those with an otherwise compromised immune systems. Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc.); are sites of candida infection. In immunocompromised individuals, Candida infections in the esophagus occur more frequently than in healthy individuals and have a higher potential of becoming systemic, causing a much more serious condition, a fungemia called candidemia. Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex. Candida yeasts are generally present in healthy humans, frequently part of the human body's normal oral and intestinal flora, and particularly on the skin; however, their growth is normally limited by the human immune system and by competition of other microorganisms, such as bacteria occupying the same locations in the human body.
INDICATIONS. DIFLUCAN fluconazole is indicated for the treatment ofVaginal candidiasis vaginal yeast infections due to Candida.; Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. In open noncomparative studies of relatively small numbers of patients, DIFLUCAN was also effective for the treatment of Candida urinary tract infections, peritonitis, and systemic Candida infections including candidemia. Medscape - Candidia infection dosing for Diflucan fluconazole, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.