Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Brazil. Cases are reported from every state, and there are a total of 25 000 new cases each year . In Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, which is one of the most heavily affected states, has been the only species identified from patients with CL in the past 20 years [2, 3]. The majority of cases occur in rural areas that are distant from medical facilities, which makes early diagnosis and treatment difficult. The traditional treatment for CL has been pentavalent antimony given for ≥20 days or more by either the intramuscular or the intravenous route. It is logistically difficult to treat patients in remote areas with pentavalent antimonial drugs because of the requirement for parenteral administration. In addition, these drugs can cause important adverse effects on the heart, kidney, liver, and pancreas . Alternative therapy using an orally administered drug with few adverse effects is needed. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is considered recurrent when at least four specific episodes occur in one year or at least three episodes unrelated to antibiotic therapy occur within one year. Although greater than 50 percent of women more than 25 years of age develop vulvovaginal candidiasis at some time, fewer than 5 percent of these women experience recurrences. Clinical evaluation of recurrent episodes is essential. Patients who self-diagnose may miss other causes or concurrent infections. Known etiologies of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis include treatment-resistant Candida species other than , frequent antibiotic therapy, contraceptive use, compromise of the immune system, sexual activity and hyperglycemia. If microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in a potassium hydroxide preparation is negative but clinical suspicion is high, fungal cultures should be obtained. After the acute episode has been treated, subsequent prophylaxis (maintenance therapy) is important.
It comes as a tablet or suspension you take by mouth. Fluconazole oral tablet is available as both a generic drug, and as the brand-name drug Diflucan. Generic drugs usually cost less than the brand-name version. In some cases, they may not be available in all strengths or forms as the brand-name drug. Fluconazole is used to prevent and treat candidiasis. This condition is caused by infection with one of the many types of the fungus Examples of candidiasis include vaginal yeast infection, as well as oral yeast infection (thrush). Candidiasis can also cause infections on other parts of your body, including your throat, esophagus, lungs, and blood. We assessed the efficacy of oral fluconazole (200–800 mg daily) in the treatment of non-lifethreatening acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis, or disseminated histoplasmosis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Of 27 evaluable patients, two had progressive acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, 11 had chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis, and 14 had disseminated histoplasmosis. Median durations of treatment in each of the three groups were 6 months, 7 months, and 11 months, respectively. Both of the patients with acute pulmonary infection responded to therapy, as did five (46%) of 11 patients with chronic pulmonary infection and 10 (71%) of 14 patients with disseminated infection. We conclude that fluconazole therapy for histoplasmosis is only moderately effective and should be reserved for patients who cannot take itraconazole. Nineteen patients were treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily (two of these patients received 800 mg daily for a portion of their treatment courses), seven were treated with 200 mg daily,.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Aug;347645-649. doi 10.1177/1049909116643927. Epub 2016 May 4. Single-Dose Fluconazole Therapy for Oral Thrush in. Fluconazole. Toxicology. Invasive mycoses. Abstract. The possible adverse effects of chronic, high-dose fluconazole therapy are detailed from analysis of a.